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RCDs protect humans against electrocution in a way that fuses and circuit breakers do not.
If you have a new circuit installed, or a circuit is substantially modified, you may be required to have an RCD fitted under the Building Regulations (Part P) or BS7671 wiring regulations. This is a legal requirement.
RCDs can be fitted to specific circuits, such as power showers, if you have an older fuseboard which does not support RCDs. Alternatively, you may consider replacing a fuseboard with a more modern consumer unit which incorporates full RCD protection.